Soil and climatic conditions


Soil type: Grey forest floor 
Soil texture: Loamy sand
Soil quality according to Russian soil value scale: 31
Usable field capacity per meter layer: 160 мм

Crop rotation at the Trial Fields:

YearField on the west side (forest side)Field on the east side (pond side)
2015Green manure (Gold of pleasure)Spring barley


Green manure (Gold of pleasure)

Spring barley


Winter wheat

Winter wheat



Red clover


Winter rye

Spring barley


Fallow land

Grain legumes

Nutrient contents of topsoil:
P2O5: 31,5 mg / 100 g of soil
K2O: 25,5 mg / 100 g of soil   
Humus content: 3.2 %
рH: 5.3 (5.7 – 6.2)

Soil density

Layer (cm)  Density (g/cm³)
0-20  1.20
20-40  1.40

Cultivation of soil:
Throughout the last years the fields were treated without usage of plough up to a depth of 20 cm. In 2015 there was stubble working on the field on the west side (forest side) with disc harrow within the depth of25cm at autumn`s till. On the filed on the east side (pond side) there was a non-turning relaxation within the depth of 25 cm.

Special attention is required for: Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli (L) Beaw), foxtail (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), groundfumes (Fumaria officinalis L.), odourless camomile ( Matricaria perforate Merat.) and sometimes – field milk thistle (Sonchus arvensis L.).

Weather Conditions

Kazan has a moderate continental climate with severe winters (temperatures down to 30°C) and mild summers (with average temperature of 20°C).